Как работает Firefox?




НазваниеКак работает Firefox?
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Безопасность Firefox

Firefox simply handles security differently from Internet Explorer. Where Internet Explorer uses security zones, which can sometimes be confused by malicious software, Firefox does not rely on zones. Also, Firefox doesn't use digital signatures, which are verifications programmers can purchase. If you try to install software on your computer, Internet Explorer checks to see if the digital signature matches the actual vendor of the program. Peter Torr, a program manager at Microsoft, pointed this out as a serious flaw in Firefox's security. However, a digital signature doesn't guarantee safe software, either. It just means that someone paid for the signature, and there have been cases of fraudulent signatures being issued.

ActiveX controls present another security issue. ActiveX is built into Internet Explorer and allows certain Web sites to automatically download scripts or execute small applications. While the absence of ActiveX in Firefox does mean that some sites will not be viewable, it also closes many security holes; in this case, Firefox chooses security over functionality.

Firefox 3.5 offers several other security enhancements. Clicking on the favicon -- that small image at the left of its URL in the Awesome Bar -- will tell you if that site's identity can be verified. In addition, Firefox now offers anti-phishing and anti-malware protection. If you visit a site that may attempt to install spyware, a Trojan horse or worm on your computer, Firefox will give you a warning and even provide you with a reason why it's not safe to visit that site.

Firefox 3.5 offers several other security enhancements. Clicking on the favicon -- that small image at the left of its URL in the Awesome Bar -- will tell you if that site's identity can be verified. In addition, Firefox now offers anti-phishing and anti-malware protection. If you visit a site that may attempt to install spyware, a Trojan horse or worm on your computer, Firefox will give you a warning and even provide you with a reason why it's not safe to visit that site.

Another aspect of Firefox versus Internet Explorer security is the fact that Firefox is an open source program. This means that anyone can access the code in which the program is written. That might sound like a bad idea, because you're giving potential hackers access to the code; but in fact, the opposite is true. There are far more people who want to close security holes than there are hackers who want to exploit them. Having thousands of people looking over your code and helping to spot problems means that most security flaws will get fixed very quickly. In fact, the developers of Firefox even offered a "bounty" of $500 and a t-shirt to anyone who successfully spotted a bug in the program.

В 2009 вышла новая версия браузера Firefox.Мы посмотрим как он менялся в следующий период.

Firefox 3.5: Что нового?

Firefox 3.5 includes some new features, functions and a few fixes thrown in to boot. Between its June 2009 release and September of that same year, more than 220 million copies of the new browser were downloaded worldwide [source: Mozilla]. In the first 24 hours of its release, Firefox 3.5 was being downloaded at a rate of 100 copies per second [source: Siegler].

The current generation of Firefox is built on the Gecko 1.9.1 rendering engine [source: Mozilla Developer Center]. A rendering engine is a program that interprets code and markup languages (such as HTML or XSL) and generates the image of the Web page you see in your Web browser. The Gecko 1.9.1 engine is faster than previous versions but it comes with a price. As Mozilla began to upgrade its engine, starting with Firefox 3 the browser isn't compatible with Windows 98 or earlier versions. It also won't work on versions of Mac OS X before version 10.3.

With earlier versions of Firefox, some people noticed their computers acting sluggish as they used the browser. It seemed that Firefox consumed more memory resources the longer it remained active, particularly if the user opened multiple tabs while browsing. Firefox had a memory leak.

Memory leaks aren't necessarily a serious problem -- most of the time, a simple reboot takes care of the issue. But having to reboot your computer multiple times whenever you sit down for an extended Web browsing break is pretty annoying. If you have a lot of applications running at the same time, your computer's processing speed might slow to a crawl. Patching the memory leaks became a top priority for Mozilla with Firefox 3.

The Firefox development team has several tools that help them measure and patch memory leaks. These tools have names like BloatView, Leaky and Trace Malloc. The developers used these tools to diagnose the problems in earlier Firefox builds. In addition, the XPCOM cycle collector tool in Firefox 3.5 looks for unused memory to feed back to the computer

Mozilla designed the browser to integrate as seamlessly as possible with different operating systems. Each version -- Windows, Mac and Linux -- has a look and style that complements the native operating system.

Далее мы посмотрим на возможные проблемы с Firefox.

Проблемы и задачи Firefox

Does Firefox mean anything more than another option for users fed up with what they perceive as slow development and rampant security problems with Internet Explorer? It might. As Firefox grows in popularity, Microsoft feels more pressure to compete with added features of its own. In a move that industry analysts attribute to Firefox's success (but Microsoft attributes to IE6 security risks), Microsoft released Internet Explorer 7 and Internet Explorer 8 separately from its Windows operating system.

Now that Firefox has a healthy share of the browser market, it will start getting a lot more attention, and not all of it welcome. The efforts of hackers focusing on the upstart browser could cause security problems. The result might be an ongoing, ever-escalating arms race as programmers race to patch security holes and hackers find new ones -- much like the current situation with Internet Explorer. Higher usage rates will also remove one of the benefits of using Firefox that appeals to many users -- it's something different.

The fact that Firefox is based on open source code also has implications. Not only is the program free to download and use, but the code is also freely available -- to look at, develop independently and release in an altered form. It's likely that some developers will grow dissatisfied with the direction of Firefox and splinter off to form their own version. Already, there are alternate builds of Firefox available, though they lack the stability of the official release.

Another possible problem with Firefox is its ability to block advertisements on Web sites. Although some ads are obtrusive and annoying, they also pay for the huge amount of information available on many sites (like this one). If people can quickly and easily avoid seeing those ads, Web sites will have to find a new business model for providing content while turning a profit.

One survey indicates that Firefox users are less likely to click on Web ads than users of other browsers, but this seems to be more an indication of greater Internet savvy than of ad-blocking [source: Marson]. One solution to the problem: Advertisers need to create better ads, ones that aren't malicious or deceptive. Ads that mimic Windows error messages or system dialogue boxes are universally hated, while flashing, blinking and scrolling ads are distracting for almost everyone.

The problem may not be as serious as some think. Removing all banner ads on Web pages doesn't come built into Firefox -- users have to install an extension. If Firefox's market share grows, it will reach more users who are less technically inclined -- users who are less likely to seek out and install extensions.

­

Что запланировано для Firefox

With the rapid pace of development going on at Mozilla, it won't be long before there's another new version of the popular browser in the works. So what's going to be in the next version of Firefox? Starting with the current generation, there's plenty of room to grow. Firefox 3.5 includes support for a host of next-generation Web technologies, including HTML 5, Ogg Vorbis, Ogg Theora, microformats and animated portable network graphics (APNG). These formats are likely to change Web page functionality once they're adopted more fully.

Support for computers with multitouch functionality is under development at Mozilla. Multitouch refers to computer interfaces such as touchscreens on cell phones and trackpads on portable computers that can detect the touch of more than one finger at a time and support special multifinger commands. When it becomes available, the Firefox multitouch application programming interface (API) will allow Web developers to include new features in Web sites that provide more functionality for users. The first version of Firefox to support multitouch may come as soon as version 3.6

Though Firefox 3.5 was released in June 2009, there were already screenshots of Firefox 3.7 floating around the following July. Of course, specifications for beta software are always in question, but Firefox 3.7 may feature a new see-through, glassy interface. Mozilla's product roadmap has releases planned for versions 3.6 and 3.7, and it already details some of the specifications for Firefox 4.0. As of this writing, it's due out in October or November 2010. Multitouch and interface changes are on the list, but so are other improvements, such as faster JavaScript, better page loading capability and synchronization of bookmarks, which can be handled now with the help of third-party plug-ins. In addition, Firefox may be borrowing features from the newcomer to the browser wars, Google Chrome: Tabs may have their own processing threads, which means that if one Web site open in your browser is having trouble, it's less likely to force you to restart your entire session


------------------------------------------------------------------------------- http://translatedby.com/you/how-firefox-works/into-ru/trans/ Original (English): How Firefox Works (http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/firefox.htm/printable) Translation: © serg_malina, Kedavra, tigra-alive, Drizzly, RusCloud, Morfeuz, shehov-n, S2im, Денис, ltree.

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